What is Online Speech Therapy, and how does it work?
In recent years, SLPs (speech-language pathologists) have uniformly attested to the great potential of online speech therapy, bringing it to the general public's notice.
Clinical sessions include tasks such as listening, speaking, reading, writing, and even playing games. Students are pre-screened and tested for particular communication difficulties, with treatment sessions aimed at correcting basic flaws.
All materials, including assessments, are kept completely secret to protect therapist-patient confidentiality. Therapists are highly qualified SLPs with experience working with children who are comparable to your pupils.
All materials, including assessments, are kept completely secret to protect therapist-patient confidentiality. Therapists are highly qualified SLPs with experience working with children who are comparable to your pupils.
How Does Online Speech Therapy Help Schools?
Because of the availability of online speech therapy, schools may now afford high-quality SLP services for their students without incurring the cost of hiring in-house professionals. Furthermore, there is no need to worry about a shortage of speech therapists because an online firm can deploy one as needed.
Furthermore, online speech therapy makes it quite simple for your students to receive the help they need. Consider this: all your children have to do is sit in front of a computer and speak with the speech-language pathologist on the other end of the line. This is considerably less intimidating and even pleasant for many children than on-site instruction.
By adopting an online speech therapy service, students and therapists will save time and money travelling to and from sessions, freeing up more important time and financial resources to better address each student's other needs.
Whether your school is in a remote region with limited access to therapists or you just need a broader network of therapists to provide great speech therapy sessions for your kids, online speech therapy offers you a lot of flexibility and promise.
Teletherapy is becoming more popular. As a result of the Pandemic “ Telepsychiatry was readily available but infrequently used when COVID initially arrived in our nation in February of 2020. The scenario is described as "a tsunami" by Dr. Jay Shore, a professor at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus and chair of the American Psychiatric Association's Telepsychiatry Committee.
Prior to COVID-19, 63.6 percent of respondents had never used virtual sessions. Following the pandemic's onset, this proportion dropped to just 1.9 percent. Only 2.1 percent of respondents indicated they utilised telepsych 76-100 percent of the time before COVID-19. During the epidemic, this percentage has climbed to 84.7 percent.
The move from traditional face-to-face to remote therapy has been comparable for speech-language pathologists and occupational therapists. This isn't only a psychological problem.
While moving to teletherapy was first necessary, many people are now finding it to be beneficial. It's tough to beat the convenience: because neither the client nor the therapist spends time travelling to and from the meeting, a 50-minute session is a 50-minute one, not a 90-minute one.
For rural communities that were treatment deserts before COVID, the time factor is more than just a matter of convenience. The most readily available therapists are often located in the larger metropolis, which is a considerable drive away. The removal of geographical barriers can be the difference between someone obtaining therapy and not receiving therapy.
2. Continuity of Care
Long-term relationships between therapists and clients are also simpler to sustain with teletherapy. If your family relocates to a new city, you should have no trouble finding a new doctor to care for your medical requirements. You may simply duplicate the doctor-patient relationship. On the other hand, the client-therapist relationship is frequently a completely different storey. Clearly, one of the advantages of teletherapy is that it allows you to maintain continuity of service.
Concerts, restaurants, festivals, and weekend trips are all resurfacing. We may get dressed up for extravagant weddings, sing together at religious events, and cheer on our favourite sports teams. We'll be able to have true face-to-face conversations and participate in the type of spontaneous communication that's tough to do through Zoom.
While many individuals are looking forward to living their best lives post-COVID once the United States reopens, others are facing a new sort of anxiety: how can I connect with people again? I feel that many individuals are now suffering from social anxiety, even if it isn't clinically serious.
If you're the sort of person who struggles with communicating even a little bit for a number of reasons, COVID may have put you out of practise. You like connections and want to be among people, yet the idea of returning to the social sphere may fill you with dread or anxiety of the discomfort that would inevitably follow.
Communication is comparable to a muscle in that it stiffens and becomes clumsy if it is not used for a long time. Communication ability, like physical training, has its own set of recuperation principles. Here are a few tips to assist you "limber up" and ease back into social situations if you're ready to connect with others again but are apprehensive owing to rusty communication skills.
1. Take it slowly:
Summer is usually a popular time for huge parties, and 2021 will be no exception. A large gathering with a variety of speakers, different sorts of friends, acquaintances, and strangers, and little to no interaction structure is one of the most challenging types of social situations. It's time to get assistance if you've been socially retreating for eighteen months and are feeling more nervous than ever.
A marathoner who takes a year off to heal from an injury does not start training by running 26.2 miles right away. Athletes evaluate duration, distance, intensity, and recuperation while returning to prior exercise levels. Constructive criticism can help you re-acclimate to being around people.
2. Keep it short:
For your initial social outings, set a time limit. A nice and sufficient conversation may be had in one or two hours. Let your communication partner(s) know that you need to leave by a certain time while the get-together is still being arranged. This sets the expectation that you will be there for a certain length of time and will not be late.
Of course, you can opt to remain longer if you're having a good time! Setting a deadline for yourself can help you feel more organised and prepared as you approach the event. Certainty and consistency can assist to alleviate anxiety and make it easier to persevere in difficult situations.
The number of people in the room and your relationship with them impact the intensity of a social encounter. A time-limited get-together with two or three familiar friends differs substantially from an open-ended large group gathering attended by a mix of acquaintances and distant coworkers. Consider the sorts of social occasions you most enjoy, as well as the types of individuals you meet.
If you're feeling completely overwhelmed by wedding and party invites, reach out to a few close friends and organise some small social gatherings to help you get the practise you need. Consider your meeting location and who you'll be meeting.
We've all probably gone to at least one IEP meeting where a group of team members gathered around a table and shared their perspectives, aspirations, objectives, and action plans for a student. A conference that flowed like a normal discussion rather of being stiff like other IEP sessions can be. This meeting certainly went on longer than it should have and added ten more chores to your to-do list, but it demonstrated the value of multidisciplinary collaboration.
If our objective is to help students feel successful in a variety of settings, we must endeavour to integrate an interdisciplinary approach not just in our sessions but also in our daily therapy plans. As someone who deals with children from preschool to high school, I find this to be quite beneficial, regardless of their age.
1) Be curious and stay curious.
Curiosity is the bedrock of constant multidisciplinary activity. Curiosity invites people to share their expertise and experience. It introduces you to new environments and allows you to collaborate with new individuals. It might be as simple as asking other experts, "Hey, how's Johnny doing for you?" or "I've observed Johnny's having trouble with this; are you seeing it as well?" This provides an opportunity to celebrate achievements or to bring to light obstacles that are keeping the student from succeeding. Members of the team may then troubleshoot together or discuss ideas that have worked in the past for the same obstacle in another setting.
2) Be flexible with what therapy should look like.
Our pupils should not be treated in isolation, and neither should our treatment. Interacting with students in a variety of settings helps you to have a more normalised grasp of the abilities that a student requires to feel successful. It also reveals any obstacles that may be keeping them from succeeding. Outside of the therapy session, look for ways to engage with your pupils. Sit with them during storey time or free choice time in the classroom if you have a few minutes. Go see the upcoming class presentation that they're apprehensive about. This is a simple technique to gradually integrate oneself into the classroom without appearing invasive.I'm changing the way I think about service delivery for my students as I include interdisciplinary practise into my therapeutic style. Because I appreciate the varied perspectives and possibilities that both environments provide, I frequently write IEPs that include a combination of pull-out and push-in. Also, be open to bringing experts into your therapeutic area, such as occupational and physical therapists, special education teachers, paraprofessionals, psychologists, and social workers. This might seem vulnerable and scary at times, but despite how frequently I wonder whether or not I know what I'm doing, no other professional has ever questioned it.
3) Collaboration can be quick!
Although my emoji history indicates that I am a millennial, my favourite mode of communication is face-to-face. As someone who moves throughout the school building every 30 minutes or so, I am constantly bumping into other professionals in the hallways, teacher's lounges, offices, and other areas. I take advantage of these brief face-to-face occasions to check in on my students, check on their progress, give advice, and accept new challenges. Face-to-face contact isn't always possible or even desirable, especially if your time is split between various buildings or treatment sessions that are scheduled back-to-back.
I also utilise email to convey information on days when my time is restricted. I send emails with insights I've gained from therapy, suggestions for the instructor to try, and occasionally amusing stories. These aren't extensive emails; they're just the highlights. That way, when I meet that person in person, I'll have have laid the framework, and I'll be able to spend my time asking follow-up and troubleshooting questions. The more this becomes a habit, the less time and effort it will need. It just takes a minute in the end. A minute may not seem like much time to fit in what we typically think of as collaboration, but as it becomes a regular habit, those minutes pile up, and cooperation becomes effortless and more interdisciplinary.
“Oink,” “Moo,” “Baa,” and “Cocka doodle doo!” exclaim the animals. Farm toys may be used in play therapy for children with Autism to work on a range of abilities. Using a farm toy and farm animals in therapy or at home may be a lot of fun! Play-based therapy allows parents and professionals to organise activities around exciting and stimulating toys, resulting in highly motivating, successful, and enjoyable treatment and play sessions. ABA Speech is pleased to provide a fun and engaging play companion to assist with this.
Why a Play-Based Approach Is Important
“Play allows for the expansion of current scripts by enacting a larger range of roles and options than are available in ‘reality.' 2001 (Paul). Playing at home is crucial for children, but it may also be beneficial in treatment, especially for students with Autism. Play therapy can assist with focus and building a healthy relationship. Play is also a fantastic opportunity for children to participate in shared activities, helping them to expand their language and social skills.
How To Use Play in Therapy
During shared activities, a variety of forms of play can be used and targeted. Functional play investigates how everyday things function and are utilised. Building and creating with various things is the emphasis of construction play. Pre-planned games, such as board games, with explicit rules are used in game play. Physical exercise is required for movement/outdoor play. Pretend play, also known as symbolic play, focuses on basic tasks that are performed in real-life or imagined situations but in a playful manner. When engaging in play therapy through shared activities, it may be extremely useful for the kid to take the lead as much as possible during the activity while staying on track with the session's aims.
How to Use Toys in Shared Activities
Farm toys and farm animals are excellent play therapy resources since many families and therapists already have them or have easy access to them. Using farm toys and animals in play therapy allows for the use of a variety of scripts, allowing for excellent opportunities to work on a variety of skills such as joint attention (shared activities); requesting (i.e. “I want the pig;” “Give me the cow;” etc. ); labelling nouns (i.e. “farm,” “pig,” “horse,” “cow,” “sheep,” etc. ); and following one-step directionsDuring play therapy, using farm toys and animals provides for multiple opportunities to address filling in the blanks while engaging in a shared activity with the kid. The following are some instances of these sorts of opportunities: “Oink, says the _____ (pig);” “Moo moo says the ____ (cow); and “The sheep says ____ (baa).” Toys may be customised to meet a variety of goals, making treatment more flexible and enjoyable! Although I've listed a few goals that can be addressed with play therapy, the possibilities are infinite!
Summer has arrived, and many youngsters are no longer in school. A break from school usually entails a break from, or at least a shift in, routines. You may be asking, "How can I satisfy his sensory demands this summer?" if you have a kid or client that requires sensory input throughout the day. If this is you, I propose integrating a couple of these low-cost, low-prep, no-fuss summer fun activities into your weekly routine to address your child's or client's sensory demands.
For many youngsters, water is both pleasurable and relaxing. Some kids can't get enough of being in the water. Water play may fulfil a child's sensory demands through swimming classes, slip-and-slides, sprinklers, an outside soap and water tub, a bike wash, or simply a plain old hose. Language concepts such as on/off, in/out/under, wet/dry, spray, pour, dump, and cold/warm can be targeted.
If you have a box of chalk, the activities are limited only by your imagination. For youngsters with weak hand grasps and pre-writing strokes, the big thick chunks of chalk give stability when drawing. For a youngster who is overstimulated, sitting on the warm pavement and painting may be quite soothing. Play a modified game of hopscotch or 4-Square with your child or client if they need to move. You may also draw a labyrinth, play hangman, or hop through the alphabet (write letters on the sidewalk and hop from one letter to another). Following directions, taking turns, requesting, recognising the speaker, sharing, and commenting are just a few of the social language skills that might be targeted with sidewalk chalk.
Popsicles aren't simply for keeping cool on scorching summer days. In the tongue and in the hand, popsicles are incredibly chilly. They feature vivid colours, sweet or sour tastes, are sticky to the touch, and have a crunchy oral feel that melts into liquid. While eating a popsicle on a hot day, you may work on the numerous vocabulary topics like taste, texture, temperature, and colour.
These three summertime hobbies are simple to include into your schedule. Consider how many different experiences you can have by eating watermelon, sharing a snow cone, blowing bubbles, tossing water balloons, playing in the sand, or going for a walk in the park. Let us know what summer activities you have planned. We'd be delighted to hear from you.
When it comes to selecting treatment options for your kid, there are several variables to consider. Many individuals are unaware that children who may get therapy in familiar settings frequently achieve and surpass their objectives faster than children who receive therapy in a formal professional environment. A number of things have contributed to this. This might range from the therapist getting a better grasp of a child's everyday life to just alleviating anxiety. Here are some of the most convincing reasons why in-home treatment for children (or therapy in a natural setting) could be a better option for your child.
It's no secret that many individuals are afraid of a formal office or a clinical setting. When a child is uprooted from whatever they were doing to get ready for an appointment, they may get apprehensive when they meet a new person in unfamiliar circumstances. Many of those anxiety-inducing conditions are removed when a kid meets with an in-home therapist instead. A child may be met at home (or at school if that is more convenient) to make them feel more at ease in a safe atmosphere, and they will work with the same therapist throughout their therapy to build a relationship and ensure that they can trust them.
Children's Home Therapy: The advantages of home-based therapy are numerous. Overall, in-home treatment for children in a natural setting has a number of advantages. The benefits are clear, ranging from more opportunities for family engagement to reduced stress and concern for everyone. Children will be able to reach their goals and genuinely thrive if they can get treatment at home.
A lot of study has been done on how hearing loss impacts speaking. We wanted to make a brief overview so that we could observe how hearing loss impacts speaking in the academic context and determine what's essential throughout the speech evaluation process. So let's go back to grad school, but just with the Cliff's Notes version of hearing loss and speech.
How Hearing Loss Affects Students' Speech
Children now have more access to language as a result of advancements in hearing screening and early diagnosis and treatment. That is a proven truth.
Hearing loss, on the other hand, can sometimes go unnoticed, disguising as behavioural issues or other communication difficulties. Speech-language pathologists are in the ideal position to identify it before it becomes a misdiagnosis or results in delayed treatment down the line.
We only need a reminder on how hearing loss impacts speech so we can re-screen if we suspect a child's audition is affected.
Vocalizations Before Language
Hearing children's prelinguistic vocalisations (trills, squeaks, and growls) have a strong motoric foundation (Wallace, 1999), and are similar to noises generated by hearing children in the first half-year of life (Oller et al., 1985).
Vocalizations that are considered canonical (Babbling)
Canonical vocalisations (Vocalizations utilising vowels and consonants to produce syllables that sound like actual speech.) do not typically occur until the sixth month in children with significant hearing loss, and have been recorded to appear as late as the 31st month (Steffens et al., 1994).
The number of consonants in the speech of children with HI is much smaller than the number of consonants present during normal hearing development. Children with HI generate a lesser number of consonants, which corresponds to a smaller number of consonant classes (Oller and Eilers, 1988; Wallace, 1999). Without audition signals, the consonant repertoire is dwindling.
Vowel Repertoire is a collection of vowel combinations.
Substitutions or distortions in vowel productions in children with HI can be distinguished from omissions and class shifts in consonant mistakes (Yoshinaga-Itano, 1998). Vowels that are near to the target vowel (e.g. /I/ and /i/) tend to be neutralised, and replacements occur (Yoshinaga-Itano et al., 1992).
Shape of the Syllable
Children with HI have a restricted repertoire of consonantal and vocalic phoneme pairs that they can use in multisyllabic utterances (Oller et al., 1985). Deaf speech is largely made up of singleton syllables with labial or nasal consonants coupled with neutral vowels (Oller et al., 1985, Oller et al., 1985, Oller et al., 1985, Oller et al., 1985, Oller et al., 1985, Oller et al., 1985, Oller
Length of utterance
Around eight months marks the start of the burst of speech-like utterances in normal development (Oller, 1980). However, until about eight months, there is still an increase in syllable structures in an infant with HI (Yoshinaga-Itano et al., 1992). Speech development is gradual, and in each age group, fewer utterances are recorded (Davis et al., 2002).
The Evolution of Phonology
Voicing substitutions (/b/ to /p/), omission and distortion of terminal consonants, decrease of consonant blends, and nasalization of consonants are all processes unique to people with severe to profound hearing loss. The biggest sources of mistake in style, according to Yoshinaga- Itano, are affricates and fricatives, as stated by Ross, Brackett, and Maxin (1991). She also mentions Gordon's (1987) study, which revealed that lingua-palatal and lingua-alveolar sounds are the most common source of place-related mistake (Yoshinaga-Itano, 1998).
The rhythmic cadence of normal speech is rarely found in the speech of children with hearing loss (Oller et al., 1985). An newborn with hearing loss has a lot of vocal patterns that aren't in the right place at the wrong time, as well as a lot of prolongation. The transition to the vowel inside each syllable set is usually excessively lengthy. This arrhythmic character is exacerbated by rapid amplitude shifts rather than a sound change contour.
We utilise tests as speech-language pathologists to assist us determine whether or not a person has speech and/or language problems. Standardized exams are sometimes used to assist us in making those judgments. What criteria do we use to choose the tests? So, we must ensure that a test is appropriate for the age and linguistic background of the individual being tested. We want to make sure that a test covers the areas of concern that parents and instructors have expressed. We also want to make sure it has good reliability and validity estimations. These are crucial test statistics to be aware of and take into account when choosing instruments for a speech-language evaluation.
In order to justify the use of a test you need high estimates of Reliability AND Validity. Let’s start with reliability. Reliability is the consistency of a test.We need to know if the test is consistent in its measuring in order to make conclusions about an individual's skills based on their performance on a test. We can't utilise our tool to guide our diagnostic judgments if it isn't consistent. As a result, while dependability is important, it isn't enough to warrant inferences based on test scores.
Let's look at several different approaches to assess consistency. There are several methods for determining dependability.
Reliability Split in Half
We may assess split-half reliability by taking the first and second parts of the exam and comparing the consistency of replies between the two halves. We may look into split-half reliability for exams that are arranged with the simplest things first and then the most difficult ones last (as most speech-language examinations are).
Inter-Rater Reliability (Inter-Rater Reliability)
We look at consistency between various persons delivering the exam for inter-rater reliability. As a result, I'm going to give the test to a youngster. After that, I'll invite one of my coworkers to do the same. After that, we'll look at the consistency of the scores.
Reliability is tested and retested.
The instrument is being administered twice by the same rater. Today I'm putting Johnny to the test. Then I'm going to test Johnny again in five days to see whether the results are consistent.
In practise, test developers consider this on a wider scale rather than on a case-by-case basis. Looking into the PLS-5-Spanish, for example, we can see that there are estimates of Test-Retest Reliability for several age groups, with around 40-80 people in each research. The reliability estimates are correlations between the test scores and the retest scores for the participants in the research. The reliability estimates for the test range from.85 to.92, which is quite high.
Why isn't there a perfect 1.0 correlation?
Every test we administer has a mistake. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including biassed test items, a lack of experience to testing circumstances, a lack of knowledge about what is anticipated, distraction, feeling ill, and so on. As a result, a given person will not perform the same way on the same exam every time. These are critical points to keep in mind.
It's also important to realise that dependability isn't everything. We truly need both reliability and validity to support the usage of a test. Reliability is important, but it isn't enough to warrant inferences based on test results.
To put it another way, we may argue that we need a consistent instrument, but just because it's consistent doesn't mean we know what we're measuring or that it's measuring what we believe it's measuring. So, while our high level of consistency does not guarantee that our conclusions are sound, it is a crucial part of the process.
Validity is the other piece of this puzzle. Validity tells us whether a test really measures what it is intended to measure?
Is this a test of receptive language abilities? Is this a test of semantic abilities? Whatever the aim is, we want to know that the instrument is capable of measuring it.
Validity can also be determined in a variety of methods.
Validity of Content
Experts in the area typically give content validity by determining if the elements that make up the exam reflect the test's purpose.
Validity of the Face
This is a different type of content validity that is typically assessed by the general public rather than specialists in the subject. It's as if you're asking if this exam appears to measure what it claims to measure.
Validity in Relation to Criterion
The link between test results and objects of practical relevance or related outcomes is investigated using criterion-related validity. The ACT and SAT, for example, are examinations used by schools to determine if students are appropriate prospects for their institution. While there are several studies that claim that high school grades are stronger indicators of college performance, examining ACT scores in relation to college success metrics is one example of criterion analysis.
When you're depressed or anxious, remembering happier memories is a simple approach to help yourself feel better. Reminiscing on a day spent alone in the woods can provide you inner serenity. Reminiscing about a football game you went to with a bunch of friends in college may bring back pleasant memories. The feeling of connection to loved ones might be felt when thinking about a birthday gathering with close family.
However, not all happy memories are created equal. Megan Speer and Mauricio Delgado published an interesting paper in the Journal of Experimental Psychology in April 2020: The degree of social connection inherent in a memory is examined in general.
The social content of the examples I used to open this post differs. There are no other people on the walk through the woods. The football game brings together a group of people who may or may not have close social ties. The people closest to you are invited to your birthday celebration.
According to Speer and Delgado's research, the degree of social connection in a memory determines its worth to you, even if the incident you remembered was positive.
Participants in one study were given a series of clues to assist them remember life events. The participants were asked to rate how positive the experience they remembered was, how intense the recollection was, and whether the memory contained any other persons, acquaintances, or intimate social relationships.
Following that, participants were given two tasks to complete with the memories they had identified. They were first shown two of the memory cues from before. They were asked which of their memories they wanted to reminisce about. After then, participants were given time to reflect on the memory they had chosen. The cues were chosen to ensure that the memories recalled were all favourable, but differed in social substance. People chose to recollect memories involving close significant others over memories involving no other people or acquaintances in this task by a small (but statistically significant) margin.
Participants were presented the cues again in a second task, and for each cue, they were asked how much they would pay (up to $1,000) to repeat the experience they remembered. Many studies have utilised this measure of willingness to pay to determine how much people enjoy items. People were prepared to pay more for more pleasant recollections than for less favourable memories, which is unsurprising. Even when the positive effect was removed, participants were willing to pay much more to recreate memories involving near significant others than memories involving only distantly linked people or memories involving no one.
Another two-day investigation was conducted as part of this series. Participants were given a large number of memory cues on one day so that the researchers could identify at least 24 happy memories. The participants were then given a stressful task requiring holding their arm in freezing cold water under the supervision of a lab technician on a second day (2-4 days following the first session). Participants are known to experience stress as a result of this task, which results in an increase in the stress hormone cortisol.
Following the stress induction, participants were asked to recall 24 good memories from the previous day. Using a mouth swab to collect saliva, participants' cortisol levels were assessed numerous times during the task.
The average baseline level of cortisol among the subjects did not differ significantly. Furthermore, the increase in cortisol in all subjects immediately after the stress test was similar, implying that they all had a similar reaction to the manipulation. The overall positivity of the memories people recovered, as well as the amount of social engagement in those memories, had an effect on cortisol levels after the memory retrieval exercise. That is, recalling happy memories reduced cortisol (suggesting a reduction in general physiological stress), while recalling happy memories involving close loved ones reduced cortisol even more.
These findings imply that social connection is beneficial to people not only in the now, but also in the future. To be content with your life, you must have happy memories that you can recall, as well as positive experiences that make you feel connected to those closest to you.
We desire — no, we want — to feel respected and appreciated in intimate relationships. We sincerely hope that our partners would appreciate our efforts, hold us in high regard, and regard us as significant and deserving of their time and attention. R-E-S-P-E-C-T is what we want. When you're in love, it's natural and appropriate to want and enjoy your partner's respect for you. But what if you're in a narcissistic relationship?
Narcissists are intense in their own pursuit of respectIf practically all partners seek respect, those who have a set of personality qualities known as narcissism have it at an unimaginable level. Narcissists thrive on seeking out social encounters that can increase their own sentiments of being loved and admired by others. They have grandiose, inflated self-images. When they see a chance, narcissists will often exploit their romantic partners to increase their sense of being respected; they may date high-status, attractive partners or purposefully associate themselves with partners who will idealise and flatter them (Campbell, 1999).
However, wanting respect does not always equate to offering respect. Do narcissists have the energy to spend to giving others respect if they are so intent on gaining others' esteem?
Narcissists and self-inflation strategies within relationshipsIf you've ever loved a narcissist, you're probably aware that they can employ a variety of strategies to maintain their inflated sense of self (Back et al., 2013). They could, for example, use:
Narcissistic rivalry is associated with low levels of respect-givingThe researchers discovered that using narcissistic rivalry techniques was linked to treating partners with less respect in their first study (Vrabel et al., 2021). In other words, romantic partners who feel obligated to preserve a grandiose self-perception by denigrating others are less likely to appreciate, honour, approve of, or show interest in the person they're dating or married to.
Individuals' tendencies to use narcissistic admiration strategies were not linked to giving their partners respect (i.e., no zero-order correlation), despite other analyses (using multiple regression with narcissistic rivalry as a predictor) showing that narcissistic admiration was positively associated with giving respect (i.e., no zero-order correlation). To put it another way, narcissists who build themselves up to feel valued are more likely to respect their relationships.